Summer Surprise Strawberry Salad

Emily:

This is from my sometimes active cooking blog. I love this salad, and you will too!

Originally posted on Emily's Midwest Kitchen:

OK a few things:

  1. This isn’t just for summer. I mean you could make it any time. But summer strawberries are much better.
  2. This is the only recipe I have created MYSELF, thus far. So this is an Emily Original Culinary Creation.

Like most good things, this was created sort of by accident.

My friends and I spent a weekend in Hocking Hills in July, in a lovely cabin that had a full kitchen, so we decided to do most of the cooking. We have a lot of culinary-minded friends, so I was planning on making a few things: my Irish soda bread (made ahead and brought down for breakfast), and a Caesar salad. I also decided to do balsamic strawberries as an ice cream topping or fun dessert, because I love balsamic strawberries and more people need to like them too.

I had asked a friend of mine to…

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Summer In the Little Oratory–Chapter Six

  The Little Oratory

(All Summer in the Little Oratory posts can be found here)

Last week’s post was a big one. This week is no less big, but only deals with one book: The Bible.

Yes. That book, you know, that you have and may not have opened, ever? That your godmother gave you for First Communion or your sponsor gifted you at Confirmation? Or maybe you got it for your wedding? You have it, and you think it’s a nice book, but you’ve never actually cracked the cover?

We’re going to fix that. Well, maybe. In any event, we’re going to talk about why you should read the Bible (and a bit of “how” to read it.)

I know a lot of people (myself included) have tried to read the Bible straight through, only to get discouraged around Leviticus. That’s OK. The Bible isn’t a continuous story–it’s a lot of different books that are written in different styles. You don’t have to read it in a linear fashion.

(And yes, Catholics do read the Bible. Catholics believe in the Bible. Don’t tell us we don’t, please. I know this is a point of some confusion for our Protestant brethren. But trust me when I say the Catholic Church has a lot of Bible going on. :) )

So let’s turn to The Little Oratory and see what it tells us about reading and praying with the Bible.

First: “The Mass itself is Scripture from beginning to end” (80). “It is clear,” the authors write, “that to love God, we must know Him, and to know Him, we would naturally want to draw closer to Him in His Word.” (80)

But what is God’s Word? Just the Bible? Nope. Dei Verbum, the Vatican II document on the Scriptures, says that “The Word is everything the Church offers to us: Scripture, the Church (the Body of Christ), and above all, Jesus in the Eucharist, the Word Made Flesh. Knowing Jesus in His Word leads us to the full knowledge and overwhelming love of the most holy Trinity…when we know God’s word well, we find that our participation in the Liturgy–the life the Trinity shares with us–deepens as well.” (80)

A great wade to wade into reading the Scriptures is to focus on the readings from Mass. Magnificat magazine, which I adore, has the daily readings and other devotions in a portable monthly format, or you can go to the USCCB’s website for the daily readings. By reading the readings for Sunday ahead of time, we allow ourselves to become familiar with what we’re going to hear, and allow it to sink into our minds, perhaps inspiring prayer or other meditations on what we’ve read.

A formal way of reading scripture is lectio divina (“holy reading”). This is when “The Word of God is so read and meditated that it becomes prayer [and] is thus rooted in the liturgical celebration.” (CCC 1177) This has several parts.

The first thing you want to do is get a Bible in a beautiful and approved translation, as the authors of LO suggest. Once you have it, there are four parts to lectio.

  1. Lection/Reading: Select a passage to read. “It’s more than permissable–it’s advisable–to skip around the books of the Bible!” (81). One system I like is to start with the Gospels, reading through them, and beginning again. Or, start with the New Testament, in General, and read it straight through. (You might not want to read Revelation without a good commentary, however!).  Whichever way you want to start, the authors suggest started with a prayer for receptivity to God’s word (“Come, Holy Spirit” will do), and then read. “As phrases catch your attention re-read them. If nothing in particular jumps out at you, you may reread the whole allotted passage a number of times, or simply let it sink in…God will speak to you. (82).”
  2. Meditatio/thinking: “In the Christian tradition, meditation means “meditate upon,” which is the same as “think about.” So in meditation, you do pause and allow for the prompting of the Holy Spirit in the form of thoughts and ideas; when these occur, you ponder over them.” (82)
  3. Oratio/prayer: Talk to God about what you’ve read, ask for help in certain areas–whatever your reading has inspired in you.
  4. Contemplatio/contemplation: This part is more receptive (83). “It is a state of stillness of mind, of just being with God.” (83) It won’t always happen, and that’s OK. We don’t have any control over that part.

“You may nor notice any dramatic indications of God’s presence, as some holy people report. However, you can be sure that God forms the person of goodwill during the time of receptivity. Good things may be happening without our awareness, just as we see that children’s bodies grow without their knowledge of the process.” (83)

I generally read 2-3 chapters of the New Testament daily. That’s my current reading plan. I use the Ignatius Catholic Study Bible New Testament and the C.S. Lewis Bible. 

My C.S. Lewis Bible

My C.S. Lewis Bible

(the C.S. Lewis Bible is more for meditation/contemplation purposes. I love it!)

I read and I don’t always feel great stirrings of the Spirit. But that’s OK. The important thing is to develop the habit of lectio, of reading God’s word and letting it sink into your mind and heart.

 

 

 

 

Summer in the Little Oratory–Chapter Five

The Little Oratory

 

(All of the Summer in the Little Oratory posts can be found here) This chapter is one of my favorites in the book. We’re going to talk about the Breviary! (Or the Liturgy of the Hours–LOH for short!)

I’ve always been attracted to this prayer. I remember as a teenager going through prayer books and reading about the LOH, and trying to replicate it with a notebook and the Book of Psalms. Needless to say, it didn’t quite work. This was before Internet shopping and Amazon, so I had no idea what these books looked like, let alone how I’d get one. But I loved the idea of prayer all through the day, and praying with the entire Church. And this desire was one of the big things that drew me toward my Lay Dominican vocation, because as a Lay Dominican, we’re required to say at least lauds and vespers daily. (It’s not binding, like it is for a priest–if we miss, it’s not a huge deal. But we’re supposed to make it a priority in our daily lives.)

At first, I know–the LOH can seem crazy complicated. You get this huge book (or books, if, like me, you have the four volume set), and it’s got all these parts and colored ribbons and how do you know where you’re going and what is happening?!

There is–believe it or not–a general outline to the office. It looks like so, no matter what is happening that day–Easter, Christmas, St. Benedict, whatever:

  1. Inventory (Morning prayer only). This is Psalm 95 (most of the time–you can use two other psalms if you want, but I always use psalm 95)
  2. Three psalms and canticles. Usually two psalms, one canticle.
  3. A reading
  4. Responsory
  5. Another canticle: in the morning, it’s Zechariah’s prayer from Luke, in the evening, it’s the Magnificat (both, coincidentally, are in chapter 1 of Luke)
  6. Intentions (pre-set in the book–you don’t have to make up your own!)
  7. the Our Father
  8. Concluding prayer

That’s it. Eight parts.

What makes it confusing is….what precisely goes in those eight parts.

Stick with me. :)

The best way to learn to say the hours is to have someone teach you. That’s how we do it in our Dominican chapter; the office is one of the first things inquirers learn to do, in an hour long class dedicated to it. It’s also helpful if you have the book in front of you. But I’m hoping my pictures will give you some idea!

 

My office books

My office books

This is the current LOH book. I use the 4 volume set. This is the third volume, for the first part of Ordinary Time (the second one is green).

 

Ribbons in binding

Ribbons in binding

Each volume has these ribbons in the binding. (You can see I also use post-its because I do not think they give us enough ribbon!)

You can use these to mark different parts of the book. Everyone has their own way of using the ribbons. I use mine to mark the Office of Readings, the morning canticle, the current day in the psalter, and feast days.

 

First section: Office of Readings

First section: Office of Readings

The Ordinary

The Ordinary

When it’s time for the office, this is what I open my book to (Post inventory. I have that memorized)

Daily psalms (in the four week cycle)

Daily psalms (in the four week cycle)

There’s a hymn. This is optional, but if I know it, I like to sing it. :) During Advent/Christmas and Lent/Easter there’s a section of appropriate hymns in the beginning of the book as well.

So, I sing the hymn, and I turn the page to:

morning prayer continued

morning prayer continued

The psalms/canticles. In the book above you see the end of the canticle, the last psalm, the reading, and the responsory.

After the responsory, it’s time for the morning canticle, which is above (marked with red ribbon.)

Then I flip back: Intercessions and closing prayer.

morning prayer end

morning prayer end

 

The cycle is roughly the same for evening prayer as well. For Office of readings, it’s three psalms, then the readings.

For Feasts, like today, you have this:

Feasts (marked with purple ribbon)

Feasts (marked with purple ribbon)

 

You have the saint’s name in bold under the date. The red notation underneath tells us what it is: A feast, a memorial, whatever. St. Bonaventure gets a memorial. There’s a short paragraph about the saint.

Then see that red writing? That’s where the prayers for today come from. Since St. Bonaventure is a Doctor of the Church, he’s really complicated. Doctors the Church are the most complicated, I think, because you have two different sorts of things to juggle. But usually it would just say “Common of Virgins” or “Pastors” or whatever. There you get antiphons, etc that are particular to the saint.

After that you see Office of Readings in bold. Following that is the second reading proper to the feast. So instead of reading whatever the second reading is for Tuesday, July 15, I’ll read this.

For complicated feast days, you can use divineoffice.org, which I love.  Also, if you get lost in  where you are in the office, this site will tell ya.

So that is the office. I love it. I know it sounds complicated, and some of it is out of date now (the prayers are the old translation of the liturgy, and they don’t have saints like St. Therese of Lisieux and St. Hildegard as Doctors of the Church), and some of the saint name spellings are wrong, but I still love it. It does take some work to learn. If you have any questions, feel free to ask! But it is a wonderful way to pray with the whole church, and get into the liturgical rhythm of the year, learning about each saint as his or her feast day comes by, and really loving that cycle

 

Daybook No. 67

Outside my window::

A lovely sunny blue sky day with fast-moving puffy clouds. Going to be in the 70s today so windows open!

Wearing::

Um, my PJs. I slept in and it was good. I really needed it!

Reading::

The Wings of the Dove, All The Light We Cannot See. And I really need to re-start The Goldfinch. It’s just sitting here looking accusingly at me.

In the CD player::

Once–I was wearing one of my Once t-shirts yesterday, so I thought it would work. :) I’m cycling between that, Music Man and Bridges, so basically I’m either in Dublin or Iowa in my car. :)

Creativity::

Oh my gosh, people, the book. I am this close to finishing the first draft. I am really proud of that. I can’t wait to send it to my intrepid first readers!

 

Theater::

The show has three more performances, and we have brush up rehearsal on Thursday. We’ve had great audience response thus far, and it’s just such a fun show. Want to come give Iowa a try? :)

 

From the kitchen::

Lots of eggs, actually. A frittata for lunch and then spaghetti with meatballs for dinner, and then other eggy things the rest of the week. I don’t know what’s possessed me. I’m watching The French Chef because it’s free with my Amazon Prime membership, and man, does it make me hungry. Bon Appetit! 

Planning:

A Hocking Hills Trip with my friends next weekend. Once the show’s over I have to pack for that.

Health::

We think the problems I’m having with chest pain are from my port, believe it or not. I’ve had it for more than 10 years, and it’s getting old and is probably irritating the muscles and skin and other things in my upper chest. So we’re going to see if it stops with the muscle relaxers. If it does, then we’re good. If it continues to be a problem, then we might have to talk about getting a new one put in. But that’s OK.

Fitness:

Rehab tomorrow, and it’s so nice, I’m definitely taking a walk today.

 

 

 

Seven Quick Takes No. 54

7_quick_takes_sm1

 

I.

Today is a big day (“Today’s a very big day, Pascal!”)

Me and Pascal

Me and Pascal

Today is my nine-year transplant anniversary.

Nine years ago I was on an operating table at the Resort getting new organs put it. It was a twelve-hour surgery which started around 7/7:30 AM (I think), so we were just in the beginning stages at this point. My new lungs probably hadn’t shown up yet! They came from Minnesota, and one surgeon started the operation while my actual transplant surgeon took over the scalpel once he arrived via Lear Jet with my new organs.

My donor was a 52 year old woman named Suzanne who died of a brain aneurysm. Her brother made the decision to donate her organs, and I am alive because of them. I am going to go onstage in a few hours and do a show because of her, and I am only alive today because of her.

I never met her. But she saved my life.

(If you’re not an organ donor, consider it?  sign up here?)

II.

Because of my organ donor, here are just a few things I’ve gotten to do:

* See my sister graduate from college

*Go to Chicago, New York, Houston, Walt Disney World, the Outer Banks

* Be in wonderful stage productions like Oliver!, And Then There Were None, Les Miserables, Jekyll & Hyde, Ragtime, The House of Bernarda Alba, The Music Man, The Importance of Being Earnest.

*Work

*Audition for Jeopardy!

*see my godson grow up

*become an opera buff :)

* Write

*spend time with my family and friends

*Meet people I never would have met

*Taught CCD

*Joined the Dominicans! (Life promises this December!)

III.

Living to 23 is OK. I mean, I graduated from college and I had some good times. But the nine years after have been priceless. And Suzanne gave those to me.

IV.

To celebrate, tonight is the opening of The Music Man. No, that’s not on purpose, but it’ll be great to do this show with old and new friends (Tiff is in the pit), and people I love in the audience. The show runs for two weekends, so if you miss tonight, you have five more chances to see it. But tonight’s gonna be pretty awesome, not gonna lie.

V.

I did spend a night in the resort this week. (If you’re new here, resort is my slang for Children’s) I was having some chest pain when I went into rehab on Wednesday so we thought I should get it checked out, which led to ER visit, and then night of observation. But the heart is fine, the lungs are fine, everything’s fine, so they threw me out yesterday–just in time for opening night. :)

VI.

This is a great cast and crew. I’m having so much fun with them, and everyone is super-nice and dedicated to the show. I think we do a better job than the movie, in my unbiased opinion. :) We’re a lot funnier, for starters.

VII.

I’ll try to post pictures later, but basically, it’s a great day when I get to do theater. Hope to see you at the show!

Summer in the Little Oratory–Chapter Four

The Little Oratory
(All Little Oratory posts here)

So, how are you doing with these posts? Are you excited for a Little Oratory in your house? I hope so!

Today we’re talking about calendars. Not the normal calendars, and not planners. But Liturgical calendars.

If you went to Catholic school, chances are you’re familiar with the round Liturgical Calendar that charts the Liturgical Year. Even the most inattentive church goers are aware of the seasons of Advent, Christmas, Lent, Easter, and Ordinary Time.

In Rumer Gooden’s In This House of Brede, one of the nuns describes the liturgical years as a “pageant”, and that’s a great way to think of it. The church, in her wisdom, gives us these periods of fast and feast that shape our lives and seasons.

Right now, for example, we’re in Ordinary Time–the green vestments adorn the priest and the altars. But really, “ordinary time” is a misnomer, because no day is really ordinary in God’s world. Every day is unique and precious.

So chapter four tales about the Liturgical Year, when we “contemplate the events of salvation in order, with Christ in the center, yet ever renewing.” (51)

The Church Year starts with Advent. Yes! The first Sunday of Advent is New Year’s Day in the church. We start the cycle of salvation over again, awaiting the birth of Jesus Christ. Advent is a penitential season, a season of preparation. Toss off consumerism and all of that, and focus on Jesus and the preparation. Yes, of course, Christmas is a wonderful season–but keep it in its time.

Then the birth of Christ, Christmas, which lasts until February! FEBRUARY! How many people keep their trees up through the 12 Days of Christmastide? Not many, anymore. But we can celebrate Christmas until Candlemas, the Feast of the Presentation, on February 2nd. (Now, if your tree is “live” and won’t make it that long, sure, take it out. But keep up the creche!) It drives me crazy to hear about people taking down the decorations on December 26th or 27th. No! That will not do!

There is a brief return to Ordinary Time before we start Lent, our great penitential season. The three pillars of Lent–prayer, fasting, almsgiving–come to the fore, and bring us to the drama of Holy Week, the most dramatic week of the year. I love Holy Week, probably because I was born on Good Friday. AT the end of Holy Week, the Triduum, the three sacred days of Holy Thursday, Good Friday, Holy Saturday. And then…

Easter! 50 days of joy! Christ is risen indeed!  Pentecost brings Easter to an end, and then back to Ordinary Time. 

And then, sprinkled in every season, are the feast days of saints and solemnities. We’ve just celebrated many solemnities–Trinity Sunday, Corpus Christi, Saints Peter and Paul, which was on a Sunday this year. The Assumption is coming in August.  We celebrate the feasts and memorials of the saints–so many days in our calendar are saints’ days!

“The saints are our friends par excellence. They go before us and encourage us. Their friendship is marked by this quality, the very epitome of the meaning of the word friend; they bring us closer to Jesus Christ.” (59:

 

St. Catherine of Siena

St. Catherine of Siena

Everyone has special saints’ days. The day they celebrate their confirmation saint (For me, that’s St. Therese, on October 1); personal favorite saints (for me that includes St. Catherine of Siena (April 29), St. Dominic (August 8), St. Elizabeth Ann Seton (January 4), and others), and other special feast days. The saints are our dear friends in Heaven! Don’t ignore them!

Of course, placed in the seasons of the year are our days, weeks, months. This Monday, next Tuesday, the fourth Thursday, etc. “A day is a unit of sanctification” (51), the authors tell us. (We’ll see this more when we talk about the Liturgy of the Hours!). And Sunday, especially, is our Sabbath Day, a day of rest given to us by God.

Here’s how the authors talk about Sunday:

…[H]ere is the Christian way of looking at the week. Monday through Saturday, we work with varying degrees of intensity, because God has given us the whole of creation to sanctify, giving matter itse day of rest.  nobility. [Saint] John Paul II speaks of how ‘work is a good thing for man–a good thing for his humanity–because through work man not only transforms nature, adapting it to his own needs, but he also achieves fulfillment as a human being and indeed, in a sense, becomes ‘more a human being.’ (Laborem Exercens 9).

The Holy Father then warns about man losing his dignity if work is used against him…Sunday is the remedy for this loss of dignity. Even the poorest person can rest on Sunday and can become a philosopher…He rises above his day-to-day needs and simply enjoys what is given to him out of the gratuitous love of the Creator.

The source of this enjoyment and even celebration is worship. Therefore, who would not put Sunday worship, the Mass, in the very first place in his life?

If you put Sunday worship and Sunday rest first, all will be added unto you. You will finally understand life and your place in it. You will see your way clear to solutions and problems that have seemed intractable, or you will be content with the way things are, depending on what God’s will for you is–which you will grasp. (emphasis added)

When a person orients himself to Sunday and is determined to make it a different day…he finds that he is at peace.  (52)

I know this can be hard. Right now, I’m in a show that performs on Sunday. We had Sunday rehearsals before the show opened. But whenever possible–make Sunday that Sabbath day, the day of rest. Try not to shop or do unnecessary things. If it can be done on Monday, do it. If you can do it on Saturday, do it. Try to rest in Sunday.

Now, how does this come back to the little oratory? Well, it helps us to live in the liturgical year, as we’ve been talking about. In Advent, the prayer table can be simple; perhaps the nativity can be placed there, or the advent wreath. At Christmas, we place the Baby Jesus in the creche, and move the Wise Men toward the stable, finally reaching it at Epiphany. Some churches have the blessing of candles on Candlemas; if you can find a church that does this, stock up on any candles you may use for your Little Oratory, and have them blessed at the Mass. (My parish actually provides candles!)

In Lent, the table can be somber, perhaps draped in purple. During Passiontide (the two weeks before Easter), it can be a good practice to drape holy images with purple cloth, to “fast” from their beauty during the end of Lent. (My parish does this with our statues in the sanctuary and outside it.) You can add the Stations of the Cross to your prayer schedule, either at your parish or at home. You can also grow in a habit you’d like to acquire, like lectio divina, daily rosary, spiritual reading, etc.  At Easter, the table can display dyed eggs, or an icon of the Resurrection.

There are so many things you can do to live the Liturgical Year, and I promise that once you try to live that way, it will make your life richer and your religious observance deeper. Really!

Daybook No. 66

Outside my window::

It looks like it’s going to rain, but then again, the sky’s been wishy-washy all day, so we’ll see what happens. I wouldn’t mind some rain.

Wearing::

Jeans and my Design-A-Tee from Downtown Disney, with the Three Good Fairies on it. I got a compliment on it at Target, so score one for the t-shirt.

Disney tee

Disney tee

I had rehab this morning, so I wore the shirt to rehab and errand running afterwards. Since Dress Rehearsals for the musical start tonight, I had to run to Target to get some protein bars and face wipes for my bag.

Theater::

Yup, Tech Week is upon us, and tonight is first dress. That’s always so exciting, and so many of the kids look absolutely adorable.

All of my kids have named themselves. I have an Isabella, an Eliza, and….a Nicodemus. (Don’t ask). I named myself Violet. At rehearsal on Saturday the music director was talking about the importance of creating a backstory for your character, and the kids ran with it. They’re so much fun.  (And yes, Violet has a back story. I even made a family tree for us.)

We open on Friday! If you’re local, you can get tickets here. We run for two weeks!

 

Fitness::

Had a great pulm rehab session today. The clinic finally got a new, awesome exercise bike, and I’m doing pilates and other things like that with my OT, whom I’ve worked with before, and really like.  No, there was no running today. We’ll get there, people.

(Also, according to my fitbit, I walk 2.5 miles during the show. That’s not bad!)

 

In the CD player::

Music Man, of course. 

 

Reading::

Caleb’s Crossing; Scott Hahn’s new book about Evangelical Catholicism (I’m blanking on the actual title).

 

 Medical stuff:

Sinus surgery and correcting the deviated septum in August. Also, I need an ultrasound of my thyroid, because it’s a bit big. It’s probably nothing major (this has happened to me before), but better safe than sorry, and it’s an ultrasound. It’s not like it’s something hard.

 

Celebrating::

My 9 year transplant anniversary is on Friday. Yeah. That’s exciting.

Plans for the week:

The show, the show, the show, the show….also rehab….and the show. :)

Happy Fourth!

08E

“The Rocket”, by Middleton Manigault (American, 1887 – 1976)
1909. Oil on canvas, 20 x 24. 1981.009

Columbus Museum of Art

Middleton Manigault was a member of the emerging Modernist movement in America. This scene was probably inspired by the many displays of fireworks that were staged along the Hudson River, in the autumn of 1909, to honor both the discovery of the river by Henry Hudson in 1609 and the first navigation of the river by a steamboat, Robert Fulton’s Clermont, in 1807. In this work, separate strokes of brilliant color convey the intense visual impact of a shower of fireworks over the river. A painting of great vibrancy and distinct originality, this work demonstrates the power of Manigault’s imagination and his instincts for color, which he derived from post- Impressionism in the early years of his career.

(source)

When in the course of human events…

 

IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776.

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.–That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, –That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.–Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.